The question has been asked-
Should we cancel our baseball game on a hot
General Answer: No
Baseball is a summer sport and it seems that
we are generally fighting the elements whenever we decide to play an outdoor
sport, its generally too cold at the start of the season, then it rains and
diamonds become unplayable and we have to cancel. So we get a nice clear day but
it's hot, what can we do?
One point to take into account as well is
that the thought to cancel generally occurs around 3-4 p.m., this is the hottest
time of the day, this is when hydrating should begin with a child as they
prepare for their game that evening. By 6:45 p.m. the temperature has generally
dropped a few degrees and the sun is setting lower in the sky and the
temperature is generally much more tolerable to play in.
1- Slow down the pace of the game,
especially when it's just little kids. Umpires should make sure that a long
enough break is taken every 1/2 inning to allow players to hydrate.
2- Substitute players- Our continuous lineup
rules allow anyone to play the field and if a player needs or wants to sit in
the shade for an inning then another player can go on. With Tyke you can reduce
the number of players on the field to 8 without penalty so let 2 or 3 sit if
they want to. Another thought is to substitute players part way through an
inning, especially if it's a really long one. Ask the Umpire for time and move
players from the bench to the field, the umpire and other team will understand.
Use a different child to catch each inning, all that equipment is hot!
3- Start hydrating before the game. When
your player has cramps or reaction to the sun it's often due to the fact that
they where outside throughout the day and not properly hydrating. As a result
you may see the affects of the days activities at the game. Make sure they are
drinking when they get to the game, they should be hydrating with water or
sports drink in the hour or two before the activity starts according to most professionals. Be
4- Avoid products that don't promote
hydration. Avoid Caffeine Products- Read the ingredients on the bottle label.
Water is good but it doesn't replenish sodium. Cramping seems to be related to
sodium loss. Sports drinks like Gatorade, Powerade, etc. will replenish most of
what your body needs when you are physically active but they're not really
designed to drink when your just sitting around. Sports drinks are designed for
exactly that- Sports. Carbonated drinks such as pop are not a great choice as
they can affect performance due to gas and cramping when running, most coaches
will not allow players to drink pop while playing
5- Don't forget the sunscreen/sunblock.
Generally the sun is setting lower in the sky in evening games and the heat is
our biggest enemy but the risk still exists so play it safe and put it on. A
tournament can cause some awful burns that often are not noticed until you get
home. Use lots & lots of sunscreen. Oh yes, and wear a hat, it keeps the sun
off your face.
6- Coaches- Keep your warm up toned down,
hold your conference in the shade, try and keep your players energy for the
game. Make sure they are drinking, force them too as a condition of playing.
There is one common
denominator in all the following articles, You must keep your child hydrated! Make
sure they are drinking prior to the activity and throughout it, especially if it
is a tournament or all day event.
Read the ingredient list on
what your child is drinking, water is easy as it's all water, sports drinks are
good as they'll help replenish that lost sodium & electrolytes, and above all avoid caffeine
oriented energy drinks. Most energy style drinks have a warning on them that
they are not intended for children and are not for athletic purposes.
The following is from
Gatorade's web page
How to maintain peak performance
Athletes who train in hot and humid conditions, whether it's
outside or in a gym, and don't properly replace their fluids run
the risk of dehydration. Because dehydration can take a serious
toll on performance, it's important for athletes to know how to
get plenty of fluid:
Remember fluids throughout the day.
This may be as simple as grabbing a sports drink first thing
in the morning, then using fountains, coolers, and cafeteria
beverages as triggers for drinking throughout the day.
Hydrate 2 to 3 hours before practices and competitions.
Athletes should aim for at least 16 ounces (2 cups) of fluid
at this time and an additional 8 ounces
(1 cup) 10 to 20 minutes prior to getting into competition.
Drink during workouts or competition.
Sports drinks, like Gatorade, can help ward off dehydration
and muscle cramps because they help replenish both fluid and
electrolytes (i.e., sodium and potassium) lost in sweat without
The following is from
What should you choose for improved performance
Proper hydration is extremely important during exercise.
Adequate fluid intake for athletes, even the recreational
kind, is essential to comfort, performance and safety. The
longer and more intensely you exercise, the more important
it is to drink plenty of fluids. Inadequate water
consumption can be physically harmful. Consider that a loss
of as little as 2% of one's body weight due to sweating, can
lead to a drop in blood volume. When this occurs, the heart
works harder in order to move blood through the bloodstream.
Prehydration and rehydration are vital to maintaining
cardiovascular health, proper body temperature and muscle
Dehydration is a major cause of fatigue, poor
performance, decreased coordination and muscle cramping. To
avoid the above, the American College Of Sports Medicine
suggests the following:
- Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat diet & drink plenty
of fluids between exercise sessions.
(Plain water or fluids WITHOUT sugar, caffeine or
alcohol are the best).
- Drink 17 oz (2+ Cups) of fluid 2 hours before
- Drink every 15 minutes during exercise.
- Keep drinks cooler than air temperature & close at
hand (a water bottle is ideal).
- If you exercise for more than 60 minutes, you may
benefit from a sports drink containing carbohydrate (not
greater than 8% concentration, though).
- Take 30-60 grams of carbohydrate per hour to delay
fatigue & fuel muscle contractions.
- Inclusion of sodium (0.5-0.7 g.1(-1) of
water)ingested during exercise lasting longer than an
hour may enhance palatability, and therefore encourage
athletes to drink enough.
Although athletes are more prone to suffer symptoms
of dehydration, all exercisers can increase performance
& delay fatigue or muscle pain by staying properly
hydrated. Consider 'prehydrating' by drinking 12-16
ounces of water 1-2 hours before exercising.
How much is enough?
To get an idea of just how much you need to drink, you
should weigh yourself before and after your workouts.
Any weight decrease is probably due to water loss
(sorry, but you didn't just lose 2 pounds of body fat).
If you have lost 2 or more pounds during your workout
you should drink 24 ounces of water for each pound lost.
Another way to determine your state of hydration is
by monitoring your morning and pre-exercise heart rate.
Over the course of a few weeks, you will see a pattern.
This information can be extremely helpful in determining
your state of recovery. Days when your heart rate is
elevated above your norm may indicate a lack of complete
recovery, possibly due to dehydration.
What about Sports Drinks?
Sports drinks can be helpful to athletes who are
exercising at a high intensity for 90 minutes or more.
Fluids supplying 60 to 100 calories per 8 ounces helps
to supply the needed calories required for continuous
performance. It's really not necessary to replace losses
of sodium, potassium and other electrolytes during
exercise since you're unlikely to deplete your body's
stores of these minerals during normal training. If,
however, you find yourself exercising in extreme
conditions over 5 or 6 hours (an Ironman or
ultramarathon, for example) you will need to add a
complex sports drink with electrolytes. Athletes who
don't consume electrolytes under these conditions risk
overhydration (or hyponatremia). The most likely
occurence is found in the longer events (five hours or
more) when athletes drink excessive amounts of
electrolyte free water, and develop hyponatremia (low
blood sodium concentration).
What about Caffeine?
While caffeine may have some ergogenic properties,
remember that it acts as a diuretic causing your body to
excrete fluid instead of retaining it, so it is not the
wisest choice when trying to hydrate. You're better off
with plain water or fruit juice until your weight
reaches that of your pre-exercise state. For additional
information on hydration and exercise, check out the
The following is from
Effectiveness of Sports Drinks
Which Drink is Better?
What drink is best for getting and staying hydrated during
exercise? Should you choose water? Are sports drinks best?
What about juice or carbonated soft drinks? Coffee or tea?
The natural choice for hydration is water. It hydrates
better than any other liquid, both before and during
exercise. Water tends to be less expensive and more
available than any other drink. You need to drink 4-6 ounces
of water for every 15-20 minutes of exercise. That can add
up to a lot of water! While some people prefer the taste of
water over other drinks, most people find it relatively
bland and will stop drinking water before becoming fully
hydrated. Water is the best, but it only helps you if you
Sports drinks don't hydrate better than water, but you
are more likely to drink larger volumes, which leads to
The typical sweet-tart taste combination doesn't quench
thirst, so you will keep drinking a sports drink long after
water has lost its appeal. An attractive array of colors and
flavors are available. You can get a carbohydrate boost from
sports drinks, in addition to electrolytes which may be lost
from perspiration, but these drinks tend to offer lower
calories than juice or soft drinks.
Juice may be nutritious, but it isn't the best choice for
hydration. The fructose, or fruit sugar, reduces the rate of
water absorption so cells don't get hydrated very quickly.
Juice is a food in its own right and it's uncommon for a
person to drink sufficient quantities to keep hydrated.
Juice has carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and
electrolytes, but it isn't a great thirst quencher.
Carbonated Soft Drinks
When you get right down to it, the colas and uncolas of
the world aren't good for the body. The acids used to
carbonate and flavor these beverages will damage your teeth
and may even weaken your bones. Soft drinks are devoid of
any real nutritional content. Even so, they taste great! You
are more likely to drink what you like, so if you love soft
drinks then they might be a good way to hydrate. The
carbohydrates will slow your absorption of water, but they
will also provide a quick energy boost. In the long run,
they aren't good for you, but if hydration is your goal,
soft drinks aren't a bad choice. Avoid drinks with lots of
sugar or caffeine, which will lessen the speed or degree of
Coffee and Tea
Coffee and tea can sabotage hydration. Both drinks act as
diuretics, meaning they cause your kidneys to pull more
water out of your bloodstream even as the digestive system
is pulling water into your body. It's a
two-steps-forward-one-step-back scenario. If you add milk or
sugar, then you reduce the rate of water absorption even
further. The bottom line? Save the latte for later.
A beer might be great after the game, as long as you were
the spectator and not the athlete. Alcohol dehydrates your
body. Alcoholic beverages are better for hydration than,
say, seawater, but that's about it.
The bottom line: Drink water for maximum hydration, but
feel free to mix things up a bit to cater to your personal
taste. You will drink more of what you like. In the end, the
quantity of liquid is the biggest factor for getting and
The following is from
What athletes should drink
There are a lot of drink choices out there, so how do you
know what is right for you.
While exercising, particularly in the heat, heavy
sweating may occur, therefore resulting in the loss of body
fluids and electrolytes. The amount of fluid lost depends
not only on the environmental temperature but on the
humidity as well. Although there are some electrolytes lost
in sweat, particularly sodium and chloride, there is a much
greater proportion of water lost. Therefore replacing the
water is far more important than the replacement of
The losses in body fluid potentially lead to health
problems if they are not replaced. There is a multitude of
sport fluid replacement drinks available. Some come in
powdered form. For these, if the recommended mixtures are
followed these usually result in drinks too concentrated.
The ideal replacement fluid consists mostly of water.
The temperature of the fluid should be cool not warm, as
this enables more rapid movement of the fluid out of the
stomach. If a race or training activity in the heat is going
to last for an extended period, try and find some way of
replacing the fluid as you exercise (every 15-20 minutes).
If that is not possible, you must aim to be well hydrated
prior to exercise (a couple of glasses of water 15-20
minutes prior to exercise), and to replace the fluid as soon
as possible after exercise.
The following article is from
External Heat Illness Guidelines
Body temperature is dependent on a balance
between heat production and heat loss. There are several mechanisms
by which we lose heat; for example, sweating allows us to lose heat
via evaporation (accounts for 20-25% of heat loss). Radiation,
convection, and conduction (2% of heat loss) also play important
roles in heat loss. Radiation accounts for as much as 70% of heat
loss under normal conditions. Hypothermia results when the body
loses more heat than it produces.
Temperature regulation is mediated by the nervous
system through changes in muscular activity and metabolism. Heat is
generated in the body through metabolism and muscular activity. A
complex regulating system is responsible for controlling the
delicate balance between heat production and loss. When conditions
in the environment become too hot or humid and the body is unable to
compensate, we become susceptible to heat illness.
Certain drugs contribute to the development of heat illness :
phenothiazines (chlorpromazine), antihistamines, beta-blockers,
diuretics, over-the-counter medications for colds or allergies, and
tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, imipramine).
There are 3 types of heat illness:
1. HEAT CRAMPS
2. HEAT EXHAUSTION
3. HEAT STROKE
Heat cramps are usually associated with strenuous
physical activity. They occur due to profuse sweating, resulting
from a loss of body salt (sodium). These patients are NOT
dehydrated. SYMPTOMS are painful spasms of muscles in the
extremities and the abdomen. The patient has a normal body
temperature, but has not adequately maintained their salt levels
because of sweating. Oral fluids and electrolyte replacement will be
sufficient. Popular sports drinks, (i.e. Gatorade) are effective in
restoring body fluids and salt balance. Persistent symptoms, despite
oral intake, require physician evaluation to exclude a more serious
Heat exhaustion is similar to heat cramps, but
the patient IS dehydrated.Here, the patient has been unable to
maintain body sodium and fluidrequirements, resulting in the
symptoms of heat exhaustion. SYMPTOMS include: fatigue progressing
to lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, headache, rapid heartbeat
while in a state of rest (100 beats per minute or more in the
adult), and lowered blood pressure. Body temperature is normal, or
only slightly elevated. Blood electrolyte abnormalities are commonly
seen secondary to dehydration.
TREATMENT involves intravenous fluid
administration under a physician's care. Seek treatment PROMPTLY.
This is the most serious heat illness and a true
medical EMERGENCY. Heat stroke is often defined as a temperature of
greater than 106 degrees Fahrenheit and the presence of a neurologic
symptoms. People at risk are: the elderly, infants, athletes,
construction workers, miners, new military recruits, persons
taking amphetamines, Mao inhibitors, phenothiazines,
anticholinergics, or tricyclic antidepressants. Those with lack of
sleep, exercise, or inadequate acclimatization to the environment
are also at risk.
COMMON SYMPTOMS include: an ELEVATED temperature, LACK OF sweating,
and often neurologic symptoms. Findings can be quite varied,
including the occurrence of seizures, unresponsiveness, one-sided
paralysis, or abnormal pupillary responses when light is shone into
the eye(s). Early symptoms may include bizzare behavior,
irritability, combativeness, or hallucinations. The patient may have
fluid and body sodium depletion as seen in classic heat exhaustion.
TREATMENT involves aggressive measures, applied quickly, to lower
body temperature. Clothing should be removed on the scene, with cool
water applied to the skin, followed by fanning. Ice packs to the
groin and armpits are also useful. Intravenous fluid administration
is often necessary to compensate for any associated fluid or
electrolyte losses. These patients require IMMEDIATE emergency